Em 1814, ao final das guerras Napoleônicas, Benjamin Constant escreveu com alívio: “Nós chegamos à era do comércio, à era que deve necessariamente substituir a da guerra, como a da guerra necessariamente tinha que precedê-la”. Ingênuo Benjamin! Ele tomou generalizada idéia de progresso indefinido, como promotora do advento da paz entre homens e nações.
Not for an instant do I forget the struggles of our time. Not for an instant do I forget the struggles of the past that made us who we are. Not for an instant do I forget that to exist is not just to dedicate and devote oneself but also to fight. Nor do I forget that life has intense moments and calm moments, joys and cruelties.
En 1814, al final de las Guerras Napoleónicas, Benjamin Constant escribió con alivio: “Hemos llegado a la era del comercio, la era que debe necesariamente reemplazar a la de la guerra, tal como la era de la guerra tuvo que necesariamente preceder.” ¡Iluso Benjamin! Asumió demasiado amplia la idea del progreso indefinido apoyando el advenimiento de la paz entre hombres y naciones.
The Trojan Horse: Detail of the neck relief on an early 7th century BCE earthenware amphora from Mykonos
Translated by Greg Johnson
Current events sometimes offer striking examples of the unforeseen. Last spring, we were all shocked by images of one of the great and powerful looking despondent, his wrists shackled, having suddenly fallen from his perch of impunity. By means of the media, spectators felt that they were following much more than a single news event. Read more …
Arthur Koestler, the author of Le zéro et l’infini (in English, Darkness at Noon), once played an important role in the Spanish Civil War as an agent of the Comintern. Through his writings, he set the tone of an anti-Francoist propaganda that has endured. Later, his deceptions made him an acute critic of Stalinism. Read more …
In 1814, at the end of the Napoleonic wars, Benjamin Constant wrote with relief: “We have arrived at the age of commerce, the age that must necessarily replace that of war, as the age of war necessarily had to precede it.” Naïve Benjamin! He took up the very widespread idea of indefinite progress supporting the advent of peace between men and nations.
Rembrandt, "Aristotle Contemplating a Bust of Homer," 1653
Translated by Greg Johnson
For the Ancients, Homer was “the beginning, the middle, and the end.” A vision of the world and even a philosophy are implicitly contained in his poems. Heraclitus summarized his cosmic foundation with a well-turned phrase: “The universe, the same for all beings, was not created by any god or by any man; but it always was, is, and will be eternally living fire . . .” Read more …